Authors: Libuschewski, Pascal
Title: Exploration of cyber-physical systems for GPGPU computer vision-based detection of biological viruses
Language (ISO): en
Abstract: This work presents a method for a computer vision-based detection of biological viruses in PAMONO sensor images and, related to this, methods to explore cyber-physical systems such as those consisting of the PAMONO sensor, the detection software, and processing hardware. The focus is especially on an exploration of Graphics Processing Units (GPU) hardware for “General-Purpose computing on Graphics Processing Units” (GPGPU) software and the targeted systems are high performance servers, desktop systems, mobile systems, and hand-held systems. The first problem that is addressed and solved in this work is to automatically detect biological viruses in PAMONO sensor images. PAMONO is short for “Plasmon Assisted Microscopy Of Nano-sized Objects”. The images from the PAMONO sensor are very challenging to process. The signal magnitude and spatial extension from attaching viruses is small, and it is not visible to the human eye on raw sensor images. Compared to the signal, the noise magnitude in the images is large, resulting in a small Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR). With the VirusDetectionCL method for a computer vision-based detection of viruses, presented in this work, an automatic detection and counting of individual viruses in PAMONO sensor images has been made possible. A data set of 4000 images can be evaluated in less than three minutes, whereas a manual evaluation by an expert can take up to two days. As the most important result, sensor signals with a median SNR of two can be handled. This enables the detection of particles down to 100 nm. The VirusDetectionCL method has been realized as a GPGPU software. The PAMONO sensor, the detection software, and the processing hardware form a so called cyber-physical system. For different PAMONO scenarios, e.g., using the PAMONO sensor in laboratories, hospitals, airports, and in mobile scenarios, one or more cyber-physical systems need to be explored. Depending on the particular use case, the demands toward the cyber-physical system differ. This leads to the second problem for which a solution is presented in this work: how can existing software with several degrees of freedom be automatically mapped to a selection of hardware architectures with several hardware configurations to fulfill the demands to the system? Answering this question is a difficult task. Especially, when several possibly conflicting objectives, e.g., quality of the results, energy consumption, and execution time have to be optimized. An extensive exploration of different software and hardware configurations is expensive and time-consuming. Sometimes it is not even possible, e.g., if the desired architecture is not yet available on the market or the design space is too big to be explored manually in reasonable time. A Pareto optimal selection of software parameters, hardware architectures, and hardware configurations has to be found. To achieve this, three parameter and design space exploration methods have been developed. These are named SOG-PSE, SOG-DSE, and MOGEA-DSE. MOGEA-DSE is the most advanced method of these three. It enables a multi-objective, energy-aware, measurement-based or simulation-based exploration of cyber-physical systems. This can be done in a hardware/software codesign manner. In addition, offloading of tasks to a server and approximate computing can be taken into account. With the simulation-based exploration, systems that do not exist can be explored. This is useful if a system should be equipped, e.g., with the next generation of GPUs. Such an exploration can reveal bottlenecks of the existing software before new GPUs are bought. With MOGEA-DSE the overall goal—to develop a method to automatically explore suitable cyber-physical systems for different PAMONO scenarios—could be achieved. As a result, a rapid, reliable detection and counting of viruses in PAMONO sensor data using high-performance, desktop, laptop, down to hand-held systems has been made possible. The fact that this could be achieved even for a small, hand-held device is the most important result of MOGEA-DSE. With the automatic parameter and design space exploration 84% energy could be saved on the hand-held device compared to a baseline measurement. At the same time, a speedup of four and an F-1 quality score of 0.995 could be obtained. The speedup enables live processing of the sensor data on the embedded system with a very high detection quality. With this result, viruses can be detected and counted on a mobile, hand-held device in less than three minutes and with real-time visualization of results. This opens up completely new possibilities for biological virus detection that were not possible before.
Subject Headings: Design space exploration
Virus detection
Biological viruses
Medical image processing
Computer vision
Cyber-physical systems
Embedded systems
Mobile sensor
Issue Date: 2017
Appears in Collections:LS 07 Graphische Systeme

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat 
Dissertation_Libuschewski.pdfDNB14.46 MBAdobe PDFView/Open

This item is protected by original copyright

All resources in the repository are protected by copyright.