Authors: Mushi, Nimrod Shitrael
Title: Regional development through rural-urban linkages
Other Titles: the Dar-es Salaam impact region
Language (ISO): en
Abstract: Many households have spanning livelihoods that draw on rural and urban resource opportunities. Urban and rural areas are closely linked, each contributing to the other, they therefore need to be considered jointly in development planning. The absence of rural development policies that recognise and seek to take advantage of positive aspects of rural-urban linkages in the impact regions of many cities in Developing Countries is a constraint to both rural and urban development. This policy vacuum requires a study to unveil how such deficiencies have affected rural-urban linkages and in turn livelihoods in both rural and urban areas.The impact region of Dar es Salaam is very conspicuous. The impact region surrounds Dar es Salaam city, which is the country's main point of entry and exit for goods and people and has always had an important role to play in the national development. Poor provision of socio-economic and physical infrastructure is evident in the impact region of Dar es Salaam. The poor development of infrastructure in the impact region dates back to the purpose of establishing Dar es Salaam city. There is a common agreement that the city was established as a port to receive agricultural produce and minerals from the hinterland to be exported to Europe. Consequently, the first objective of this research was to identify the types of rural-urban linkages in the impact region, describe the level of development of the impact region and the extent of rural-urban linkages. The second objective of the research was to evaluate the strength and weaknesses of rural-urban linkages in the impact region, analyse rural-urban linkages with specific focus to the city and the settlements in the impact region, and appraise its role in enhancing livelihoods in urban and rural areas as well. The third objective was to formulate a policy framework for effective rural-urban linkages and enhanced livelihoods. These issues have been investigated empirically. The research addresses the question of urban-rural linkages first from a theoretical standpoint, and thereafter illustrates it with some concrete cases at two different geographical locations. Besides, it takes a dynamic approach to rural-urban linkages by looking more closely at changes affecting the impact region livelihoods rather than merely describing the linkages between urban and rural areas. The study adopted participatory methodology tools such as focus group discussions, mobility matrix, Venn diagrams, and small-scale household surveys. These tools were put to practice in the commodity chain analysis from the production stage in the villages to the consumption stage in urban areas. This research unveils the latent potentials of rural-urban linkages in livelihood enhancement in both rural and urban areas. The observed weak rural-urban linkages and livelihoods development can be attributed to the limited local institutional development and its interplay, inadequate provision of social, physical and economic infrastructure and ineffective regional planning machinery in the impact region.Main findings in the study were: locally designed institutions are fundamental safety nets; affordable transport complements other factors; and that migration is a survival strategy in rural-urban linkages. Based on these findings, the study recommendations include: Firstly, institute planning teams to deal with the urban problems that cut across local authorities boundaries consisting of core city and the adjacent district authorities. Secondly, involve local communities to surcharge new development in the impact region for the provision of line infrastructural facilities, such as roads, electricity and water. Thirdly, support locally designed institutions and private small-scale processing industries by formulating a policy that allows governments non-governmental organisations and donors to invest in institutions, either directly or indirectly by creating an environment friendly to the emergence of local institutions. Lastly, as regards migration of people, it is at the heart of development. Policies need to support migration by creating socio-infrastructure facilities such as schools, water, and value added processing and employment opportunities to the new areas.The report is organised in eight chapters. Chapters one to four describe the context, the conceptual framework and the research methodology. Chapter five and six present the case studies, while chapters seven and eight present the cross case analysis, policy implications and recommendations.
Subject Headings: Rural-urban linkages
poverty
livelihoods
impact region
regional development
Tanzania
Stadt-Umland
Ländlicher Raum
Armut
Einkommen
Regionalplanung
Tansania
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/2003/2862
http://dx.doi.org/10.17877/DE290R-81
Issue Date: 2004-11-09
Publisher: Universität Dortmund
Appears in Collections:Sonstige Veröffentlichungen

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