Authors: Al-Behadili, Husam Jumaah Naeemah
Title: Self-adaptive structure semi-supervised methods for streamed emblematic gestures
Language (ISO): en
Abstract: Although many researchers try to improve the level of machine intelligence, there is still a long way to achieve intelligence similar to what humans have. Scientists and engineers are continuously trying to increase the level of smartness of the modern technology, i.e. smartphones and robotics. Humans communicate with each other by using the voice and gestures. Hence, gestures are essential to transfer the information to the partner. To reach a higher level of intelligence, the machine should learn from and react to the human gestures, which mean learning from continuously streamed gestures. This task faces serious challenges since processing streamed data suffers from different problems. Besides the stream data being unlabelled, the stream is long. Furthermore, “concept-drift” and “concept evolution” are the main problems of them. The data of the data streams have several other problems that are worth to be mentioned here, e.g. they are: dynamically changed, presented only once, arrived at high speed, and non-linearly distributed. In addition to the general problems of the data streams, gestures have additional problems. For example, different techniques are required to handle the varieties of gesture types. The available methods solve some of these problems individually, while we present a technique to solve these problems altogether. Unlabelled data may have additional information that describes the labelled data more precisely. Hence, semi-supervised learning is used to handle the labelled and unlabelled data. However, the data size increases continuously, which makes training classifiers so hard. Hence, we integrate the incremental learning technique with semi-supervised learning, which enables the model to update itself on new data without the need of the old data. Additionally, we integrate the incremental class learning within the semi-supervised learning, since there is a high possibility of incoming new concepts in the streamed gestures. Moreover, the system should be able to distinguish among different concepts and also should be able to identify random movements. Hence, we integrate the novelty detection to distinguish between the gestures that belong to the known concepts and those that belong to unknown concepts. The extreme value theory is used for this purpose, which overrides the need of additional labelled data to set the novelty threshold and has several other supportive features. Clustering algorithms are used to distinguish among different new concepts and also to identify random movements. Furthermore, the system should be able to update itself on only the trusty assignments, since updating the classifier on wrongly assigned gesture affects the performance of the system. Hence, we propose confidence measures for the assigned labels. We propose six types of semi-supervised algorithms that depend on different techniques to handle different types of gestures. The proposed classifiers are based on the Parzen window classifier, support vector machine classifier, neural network (extreme learning machine), Polynomial classifier, Mahalanobis classifier, and nearest class mean classifier. All of these classifiers are provided with the mentioned features. Additionally, we submit a wrapper method that uses one of the proposed classifiers or ensemble of them to autonomously issue new labels to the new concepts and update the classifiers on the newly incoming information depending on whether they belong to the known classes or new classes. It can recognise the different novel concepts and also identify random movements. To evaluate the system we acquired gesture data with nine different gesture classes. Each of them represents a different order to the machine e.g. come, go, etc. The data are collected using the Microsoft Kinect sensor. The acquired data contain 2878 gestures achieved by ten volunteers. Different sets of features are computed and used in the evaluation of the system. Additionally, we used real data, synthetic data and public data as support to the evaluation process. All the features, incremental learning, incremental class learning, and novelty detection are evaluated individually. The outputs of the classifiers are compared with the original classifier or with the benchmark classifiers. The results show high performances of the proposed algorithms.
Subject Headings: Gesture
Semi-supervised learning
Incremental learning
Novelty detection
Data stream
Incremental class learning
Adaptive structure classifier
Issue Date: 2017
Appears in Collections:Arbeitsgebiet Bildsignalverarbeitung

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