Authors: Tillmann, W.
Ulitzka, T.
Dahl, L.
Wojarski, L.
Ulitzka, H.
Title: An investigation of the influence of integration of steel heat treatment and brazing process on the microstructure and performance of vacuum-brazed cemented carbide/steel joints
Language (ISO): en
Abstract: Cemented carbides are commonly brazed to transformation hardening tool steels without taking a proper and adequate steel heat treatment into account. This publication shows the limits and possibilities of integrating a steel heat treatment, including a quenching process, into a vacuum brazing process. Therefore, copper-based filler metals are selected to ensure the steel component’s high and homogenous hardness and supply a high joint quality. In this context, the aimed steel hardness was chosen in the range between 400 and 440 HV1 based on industrial experiences. This specific hardness range for the steel component was set to avoid wear of machining tools in subsequent machining steps if the steel hardness is too high and to prevent wear and deformation of the tool itself in case of a steel hardness too low. When using the transformation hardening tool steel 1.2344, the obtained shear strength values did not exceed a threshold of 20 MPa which can be attributed to the required N2-quenching from brazing respectively solution annealing temperature. However, the steel components featured a hardness of 527.1 HV1 for the specimens brazed with pure copper at 1100 °C and 494.0 HV1 for those brazed with a CuGeNi filler metal at 1040 °C. This publication also shows an alternative route to manufacture long-lasting tools with a cemented carbide/steel joint by applying the difficult to wet and not well researched, but for many other reasons very suitable precipitation hardening maraging steel. Especially, the comparable low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and the capability of the lath martensite to compensate large amounts of externally imposed stresses during the austenite-to-martensite transformation as well as the cooling rate independent of the hardening mechanism of the maraging steel and a pre-applied nickel coating including the corresponding diffusion processes are responsible for a sound joint with a shear strength > 300 MPa. Moreover, the subsequent tempering process at 580 °C for 3 h provides the maraging steel joining partner with a hardness of 426.6 ± 6.0 HV1.
Subject Headings: Vacuum brazing
Cemented carbide
Heat treatment
Maraging steel
Joint strength
Subject Headings (RSWK): Löten
Issue Date: 2022-02-28
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Appears in Collections:Lehrstuhl für Werkstofftechnologie

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