Authors: Roth, Thomas
Evertz, Rebecca
Kopplin, Niklas
Tilloy, Sébastien
Monflier, Eric
Vogt, Dieter
Seidensticker, Thomas
Title: Continuous production of amines directly from alkenes via cyclodextrin-mediated hydroaminomethylation using only water as the solvent
Language (ISO): en
Abstract: Aqueous hydroaminomethylation (HAM) is an atom economical route for the efficient production of amines in one reaction step, starting from basic chemicals like alkenes. Herein we present the first successful establishment of a continuous process for HAM in an aqueous multiphase system. The green mass transfer agents randomly methylated-β-cyclodextrins (CD) enabled the catalytic system consisting of rhodium/sulfoXantphos to achieve high yields of up to 70% with selectivities of up to 80% in several continuous experiments with a total run time of more than 220 h. The key here is that water and products have large polarity differences, but the reaction still proceeds effectively due to the addition of cyclodextrin, which made the application of solvents obsolete. The main achievements in this way were the investigation of the influence of the randomly methylated-β-cyclodextrin concentration on the reaction rate and the selectivity in batch studies and finding promising operating points in the first continuous experiments. In a final experiment, the separation temperature was investigated. It was shown that the catalyst loss in the product phase is enormously small at 0.003% h−1 of the initial mass (0.24% in total), which is the lowest ever reported value for the HAM on this scale. Within a run time of 78 hours, 2.87 kg of tertiary amine were produced using only 0.2 g (>14[thin space (1/6-em)]000[thin space (1/6-em)]:[thin space (1/6-em)]1) of transition metal, while the loss of rhodium per kg of product produced was mostly around 0.15 mg kg−1, suggesting possible economical applicability.
Issue Date: 2023-03-28
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Appears in Collections:Lehrstuhl Technische Chemie

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